|Abstract||Background: The Global Laboratory Initiative (GLI) guidelines recommend repeat for GeneXpertMTB/RIF (XpertMTB/RIF) in patients with a low pretest probability of rifampicin resistance (RR). |
Methods: This was a cross-sectional study using results of sputum specimens collected from participants screened for the STREAM 2 trial. We recruited all patients with XpertMTB/RIF RR-TB detected who were referred for RR/multidrug-resistant (MDR) TB treatment initiation at Mulago National Referral Hospital, Kampala, between September 2017 and October 2019. At baseline, smear microscopy, repeat XpertMTB/RIF, Xpert Ultra, and MTBDRplus assays were done on sputum specimens. Culture-based drug susceptibility testing (DST) was performed on discordant specimens. We analyzed the prevalence and factors associated with discordance between initial and repeat XpertMTB/RIF RR and false XpertMTB/RIF RR. False XpertMTB/RIF RR was defined as no RR detected by any of Xpert Ultra, LPA, or culture DST (reference comparator).
Results: A total of 126/130 patients had repeat XpertMTB/RIF results, of whom 97 (77.0%) had M. tuberculosis detected, 81 (83.5%) had RR detected, and 1 (1.0%) had RR indeterminate. The prevalence of discordant XpertMTB/RIF RR was 15/96 (15.6%), whereas false XpertMTB/RIF RR prevalence was 10/96 (10.4%).Low-bacillary load sputum specimens were more likely to have discordant XpertMTB/RIF RR and false XpertMTB/RIF RR results (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.04; 95% CI, 0.00-0.37; P = .01; aOR, 0.02; 95% CI, 0.01-0.35; P = .01, respectively).
Conclusions: Our findings show a high false-positive rifampicin resistance rate in low-TB burden patients, which calls for repeat testing in order to prevent unnecessary prescription of anti-MDR-TB therapy.
Keywords: RR/MDR-TB; Repeat; Xpert; detection.
|Date of Publication||02 April 2021|